AVIA GLOBAL UPDATE ISSUE 70 - APRIL 2017

By Vivienne Sandercock

1. Message from the Editor
2. A small matter of knowledge
3. Africa's 2017's Hazards, Incidents, Accidents and Safety Occurrences
4. Emergency Response Planning
5. Henley Global Safety and Quality Training
6. Midair firestorm: lithium ion batteries in airplane cargo sparks fear
7. Leaving the seatbelt sign on too long is dangerous according to an air safety expert
8. The satellite system that could avoid another MH370: radical scheme to track aircraft wherever they are to be fully operational in 2018
9. Solar Jet Stream, Promises Better Flare Forecasting
10. News from the Johannesburg Airports
11. Finale
12. IATA Global Aviation Data Management

1. MESSAGE FROM THE EDITOR

There has been a great deal of updating carried out in the various Parts of the SACAA Regulations. We suggest that you have a look at the do's and don'ts listed in Part 139 which includes such things as do not pick the flowers or walk on the grass, vagrancy and a myriad of other restrictions. In fact many of the Parts have been changed and are available electronically although sadly the "Blue Book" Amendments are woefully behind therefore in order to be compliant you should ensure that you have electronic access to the SACAA CATS and CARS before your next Licence/Certificate renewal inspection.
Vivienne

2. A SMALL MATTER OF KNOWLEDGE

Drone Law in South Africa Drone law in South Africa is a very interesting and complex situation. The flying of drones in the South African airspace had been unregulated and essentially illegal. Initially, the South African Civil Aviation Authority (SACAA) responded by clamping down on drones already operating in the South African civil aviation airspace. But now, SACAA has collaborated with the drone industry and formulated regulations to deal with this rapidly expanding industry. The law addresses the main issues of safety and security when using drones and the correct way to classify them. These regulations have been adopted by the Minister of Transport. They can be found in Part 101 of the South African Civil Aviation Regulations. They came into force on 1 July 2015, and South Africa became one of the first countries to have comprehensive drone law. This placed South Africa as a world leader in drone regulation, and many other countries have followed suit. Drone law is an aspect of robot law.

Actions you can take • Know what you can and cannot do with your drone by attending a two-hour practical workshop on drone law. Email us to find out when and where the next one will take place. • Know the law by reading the drone regulations. • Find answers to your questions by consulting with one of our attorneys. • Get certainty on how the law applies to you by getting an opinion from us that answers your drone law questions.

Background of Drone Law On 2 April 2014, SACAA issued a media statement explaining that the current civil aviation laws did not provide for the certification, registration or operation of drones in the South African civil aviation airspace. This meant that South Africa did not have any drone law. SACAA further stated that those flying any type of drone are doing so illegally. In the statement, they mentioned that they were developing regulations to deal with the pressing issue. A key concern for them in the development process was safety, security and privacy.

The statement caused an uproar in the industry and on 4 June 2014, SACAA released a further statement clarifying that the flying of drones in South Africa has never been legal, as there are no laws governing their use in South Africa. Current civil aviation regulations prescribe specific requirements for operating an aircraft in the South African airspace, and to date no drone has been able to comply with these requirements. In the statement SACAA made it clear that it had not given any concessions or approval to any organisation, individual, institution or government entity to operate drones within the civil aviation airspace. From the industry's reaction over the statement, the need for good and comprehensive drone law was apparent. South Africa is a member of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). ICAO is working with the member states to create an international regulatory framework for drones using Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS).

Toy or drone?
A big issue is the distinction between a "toy" and a drone. The difference between a radio controlled or model aircraft (used as a toy), and a drone has not been defined by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). The initial suggestion by the SACAA is that if the aircraft is being used solely for recreational or sport purposes, then it is governed by Recreation Aviation Administration South Africa (RAASA). So the aircraft would most likely be regarded as a toy and its use would be legal. However, if the aircraft is used for commercial purposes, professional or aerial work, then it would likely be classified as a drone and would have to be regulated by the SACAA.

The main problem is that legislation is still struggling to keep up with the rapid pace of drone technology.

Draft Regulations
In December 2014, SACAA published draft regulations for drones, now referred to as Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS). Stakeholders were able to comment on the draft until 5 January 2015. The draft regulations maintain the distinction between RPAS used for commercial, corporate or non-profit purposes and those used for an individual's personal and private purposes. The draft regulations required certain operators of an RPAS to have a RPAS pilot's license from a ACAA accredited school or institution. This required if the drone is used for commercial, corporate or non-profit use. The draft regulations have been further updated with changes.

Key Features of the Draft Regulations
Unlike the US, RPAS are classified according to kinetic energy, as well as height and weight. This was a recommendation by Hennie Kieser, the director and chairman of the Commercial Unmanned Aircraft Association of South Africa (CUAASA).

SACAA can grant specific permissions for night operations, operations in the vicinity of people, property, structures and buildings, and public roads. Flights beyond the visual line of sight are also permitted in certain circumstances. Kieser was concerned with how the regulations will deal with pilot training and staffing. Currently, there are a few drone training organisations, known as RTOs. Most of them are situated in Gauteng, and there is one in the Western Cape.

Drone Law and Privacy
SACAA needs to take privacy into account when further developing drone law because drones are often equipped with video cameras on them. They could record or stream video anonymously and potentially also gathers data around it as it moves around. Subash Devkaran, the SACAA Senior Manager for Certification suggests that drones would need a registration record for both the pilot and aircraft. This will be the case should the regulations be approved.

Many of the comments submitted to the draft regulation came from human rights and activist organisations. They expressed their concerns about infringing the right to privacy with drones specifically that the State has an increasingly greater capability to collect information on its citizens. They also mentioned the various uses for drones in the military and the concerns that individuals also infringe on privacy. The Protection of Personal Information Act (POPI) protects an individual from the unlawful processing of their personal information. Collection is included in the definition of "processing" so before these regulations are signed into law, they must take the provisions of POPI into account especially in light of new advanced technologies like drones. POPI itself may also have to be reviewed in light of drone technology because any drone, regardless of its commercial or non-commercial purpose, can have the ability to collect and process personal information.

This is a key concern drone law needs to properly address.

We can help you understand how your personal information may be affected through our workshops and we can help you make sure you are processing information lawfully.

This article comes courtesy of practical legal solutions.

3. AFRICA'S 2017 HAZARDS, INCIDENTS, ACCIDENTS AND SAFETY OCCURENCES

Source, amongst others, PlaneCrash info.com; News24, Aviation Herald, Flight Safety Information, SACAA

ACCIDENTS INVOLVING FIXED WING AIRCRAFT IN AFRICA DURING 2017
Date A/C Type Fatalities Location
03 Jan 17 Passenger TBA 1 Jufra Airbase, Libya
05 Jan 17 Cessna Caravan 0 Sasakwa Airstrip, Serengeti, Tanzania
11 Jan 17 Cessna 206 0 Kenilworth, Zimbabwe
29 Jan 17 Falcon 0 Wonderboom, GP, RSA
14 Feb 17 B737-300 0 Nairobi, Kenya
22 Feb 17 Beech Bonanza 0 Stellenbosch, WC, RSA
01 Mar 17 Baron 58 2 Grand Central Airport, GP, RSA
06 Mar 17 Cheetah XLS 1 GPS position S 26° 28' 42" E 028° 10' 42, GP, RSA
11 Mar 17 Gyroplane 0 GPS position S 26° 19' 22.79" E 030° 49' 36.92", LIMPOPO, RSA
14 Mar 17 Beech Baron 58 0 Joshua Nkomo Airport, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe
18 Mar 17 Cessna 172 0 Potchefstroom Airfield, GP, RSA
20 Mar 17 An26 0 Wau, Sudan
21 Mar 17 Cessna 172 0 Hekpoort, GP, RSA
27 Mar 17 Islander NN2A-300 6 Vumba, Mountain, Nr. Mutare, Zimbabwe
28 Mar 17 Jodel D18 0 Next to N6, EC, RSA
ACCIDENTS INVOLVING ROTOR WING AIRCRAFT IN AFRICA DURING 2017
22 Jan 17 Mil Helicopter 6 Bogo, North Cameroon
24 Jan 17 Bell 407 3 Central African Park, Central African Republic.
25 Feb 17 RH22 1 Mpande, Eastern Cape, RSA
03 Mar 17 RH44 0 Tutume, Botswana
22 Mar 17 Bell 206B 0 Mjakeni, Swaziland

INCIDENTS AND OCCURRENCES DURING MARCH 2017
Date A/C Type Location Occurrence
01 Mar: B733 En-route Khartoum, Sudan to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Crew decided to divert into Port Sudan due to a burning odour in the cabin COM
04 Mar: Windlass Aquilla GPS position S 25° 39' 36.4" E 027° 59' 59.07", GP, RSA After the seventh touch and go, the engine started to lose power PVT
08 Mar: Beech F9 Left of runway 29 at Rand Airport, GP, RSA It was reported that on approach to landing, the landing gear was not down, nose gear was only partially extended and the main gear was not visible PVT
12 Mar: A30B Cairo, Egypt Smoke in cockpit on landing COM
12 Mar: Windlass Aquilla Runway 29 of Rhino park Airfield, GP, RSA A pilot reported that during the landing roll on runway 29 he lost directional control of the aircraft due to high speed PVT
12 Mar: Jabiru Runway 18, FAHS, KZA, RSA The pilot reported that twelve minutes into the flight the engine started to lose power. Ferry
13 Mar: B738 Flight route close to OKTEV, FS, RSA Reduced horizontal and vertical separation COM
15 Mar: Cessna 172 Next to runway at FAOH, WC, RSA After landing, upon vacating the runway exit 2, the ATC observed the pilot vacating at a substantial speed and the aircraft veered off the taxiway careered through the bushy type terrain next to the taxiway TRNG
16 Mar: Papa 51 Thunder Mustang GPS position S 34° 14' 08.27" E 018° 50' 59.69", WC, RSA During flight, the pilot heard the engine sound change. As he scanned the engine instruments, he saw that the oil pressure was dropping and the engine stopped. Scenic
16 Mar: Savage GPS position S 29° 10' 13.14" E 030° 17' 40.30", KZN, RSA The aircraft experienced engine power loss and started losing height

AERODROME HAZARDS
Entebbe, Uganda
ATC Staff under training

Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo
ATC

Beni, DRC
Runway condition very poor

Juba, Sudan
Poor ATC, heavily congested airfield.

Lanseria International Airport, RSA
Upgrading of taxiways

4. EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING
Blake Emergency Services is the International Crisis Management and Contingency Planning and Response Specialist who, although based in the UK, have extensive experience in Africa having handled accidents, incidents, counselling, repatriation, DNA sampling and confirmation, in amongst others Lagos, Nigeria; Fez, Morocco; Pointe Noire, Congo; Moroni, Comores; Maputo, Mozambique and more recently Ukraine, The Netherlands, Indonesia and Mali. Please go to www.blakeemergency.com or.netblakes@aviaglobal.net

If you are interested in becoming a volunteer for Blake Emergency If you are interested in becoming a volunteer for Blake above.
An Emergency Response Plan is a required section of your SMS and may also be added to your Operations Manual training together the writing of Emergency Response Plans and Procedures is now offered through Blake Services. For more information, of Emergency Response Plans and Procedures is now offered through Blake Services. For more information please contact Rethea
blakes@aviaglobal.net


4. HENLEY AVIATION TRAINING

Should you wish to make a booking for any of these courses please contact Candice on +27 (0)72 211 7866 or by email to training@henleyglobal.org.za

DATES COURSE LECTURER COST EXCL. VAT PER DELEGATE
10 - 11 April 2017 Human Factors Dr. Joel Hughes R 2,500-00
19 April 2017 DG - Refresher Verity Wallace R 800-00
19 April 2017 CRM - Refresher Verity Wallace R 980-00
24 - 25 April 2017 Quality Assurance Auditor Course Dan Drew R 2,500-00
3 May 2017 DG - Refresher Verity Wallace R 800-00
3 May 2017 CRM - Refresher Verity Wallace R 980-00
8 - 12 May 2017 Integrated Safety Officer Course Various R 6,500-00
24 May 2017 CRM - Refresher Verity Wallace R 980-00
24 May 2017 DG - Refresher Verity Wallace R 800-00
22 - 23 May 2017 Human Factors Dr. Joel Hughes R 2,500-00
29 - 30 May 2017 Quality Assurance Auditor Course Dan Drew R 2,500-00
Notes:
Cost per delegate includes all training materials, refreshments and lunch.

Attendees paying in cash on the day are eligible for a 10% discount
Both Recurrent CRM and Dangerous Goods Training Courses are available upon request - even at short notice.
On request we also offer - Air Cargo Security (Part 108), Health and Safety (Medical), Cargo and Warehouse Security, Risk Management & Investigations, First Aid and the Law, NEW - Maintenance Reliability Programme & NEW - Maintenance Management.


6. MIDAIR FIRESTORM: LITHIUM ION BATTERIES IN AIRPLANE CARGO SPARKS FEAR


The U.S. and United Kingdom bans on personal electronics in the cabin of some flights from the Mideast and Africa have sparked worry about the risk of fires from lithium-ion batteries stored in cargo. Rechargeable batteries have raised concerns for years because poor packing or manufacturing flaws can occasionally cause catastrophic problems. Storing batteries in cargo raises worry because that's where a fire could spread unnoticed.

"Any mishap you have in that checked luggage could cause a small fire, but trigger and light up these flammable materials" such as hair spray or nail polish packed in the luggage, said Michael Mo, CEO of KULR Technology, which is developing technology with NASA to prevent lithium batteries from overheating. "A much bigger fire in the cargo space is nothing that anybody wants."

Incidents of rechargeable battery fires are exceedingly rare, either in aviation or elsewhere. Government security officials said they worked with the Federal Aviation Administration to ensure that electronics and their batteries are packed and shipped safely. The electronics ban applies to non-stop flights of nine airlines from eight countries in the Mideast and Africa.

For example, the FAA guidance discouraged airlines from collecting all electronics in a single bin at an airport gate to be checked, to prevent jostling and avoid damaging batteries. George Kerchner, executive director of the trade group PRBA - the Rechargeable Battery Association, said international standards for more than a decade have allowed electronics in checked luggage and spare batteries in carry-on bags. "We're not aware of any additional risk that this presents," Kerchner said. "The industry obviously has an outstanding record for safety. There are millions of electronic devices that people use every day and the record reflects that."

Concerns about lithium batteries typically focus on large-scale shipments aboard cargo planes. Battery shipments were implicated - but not proven as the cause - in fiery crashes of an Asiana Airlines flight near South Korea in 2011, a UPS flight in United Arab Emirates in 2020 and a UPS flight in Philadelphia in 2006. FAA testing later found that halon gas used to suppress fires on planes doesn't work well on batteries in a chemical reaction called a thermal-runaway, where temperatures reach 800 degrees Celsius. A 2015 FAA report found "the uncontrollability of lithium battery fires can ultimately negate the capability of current aircraft cargo fire suppression systems, and can lead to a catastrophic failure of the airframe."

The International Civil Aviation Organization, a branch of the United Nations that sets non-binding policies for airlines, decided last year to ban bulk shipments of lithium-ion batteries on international passenger flights. On cargo flights, the batteries must be charged to no more than 30%, to reduce the likelihood of fires.

But after the Obama administration sought to adopt the international standard for domestic flights, the Trump administration has frozen the regulation for further review. On a smaller scale, the Transportation Department banned Samsung Galaxy Note 7 phones from airlines in October after nearly 100 reports of the devices overheating and sometimes injuring owners. The manufacturer halted production of the device after updated versions continued to overheat, following a recall of the first version.

Airlines adopted special gloves and bags to hold overheating phones and smother them of oxygen, thus preventing the spread of a fire.

Incidents involving batteries are exceedingly rare. But the FAA counted 138 aviation incidents involving lithium batteries as cargo or luggage from March 1991 through December 2016, which the agency said might not be a complete list. Incidents included:

# A fire in the overhead bin of a Delta Air Lines flight from Honolulu to Atlanta on Dec. 3 was traced to a laptop. Three halon extinguishers and two water extinguishers were used to smother the fire.
# A fire in a checked bag aboard a United Airlines flight from Newark to San Juan on Aug. 13 was blamed on two spare lithium batteries in their charging unit in a checked bag.
# A Delta flight from Newark to Detroit on Aug. 5 was delayed when a lithium-battery charger in a seatback pocket caught fire, and the passenger extinguished it in the lavatory, which set off the smoke detector. The flight was delayed 34 minutes.

The FAA allows electronics with lithium-ion batteries to fly in checked luggage or carry-on bags. But the FAA restricts spare lithium batteries to carry-on bags because of risk of damage while jostling. The FAA concern is that loose batteries could short-circuit - causing extreme heat or even a fire - if they come into contact with keys, coins, tools or other batteries. The FAA recommends packing loose batteries in their original packaging or a battery case.

If batteries stay inside the laptop or camera, FAA says another key is to make sure the device is turned off and can't be turned on accidentally, to prevent overheating. "The batteries must be protected from damage and short circuit or installed in a device," the FAA said in its "pack safe" advice for travellers. "Battery-powered devices -particularly those with moving parts or those that could heat up - must be protected from accidental activation." Mo, the expert who was attending the International Battery Seminar in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., said he is concerned that rough treatment of checked luggage could damage batteries. "This is an extremely volatile situation," Mo said. But Kerchner, of the battery-industry group, said current regulations ensure that batteries are safe for travel.

"There are adequate safeguards in place to address these concerns that occasionally pop up, like the Samsung recall, for example," he said.
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2017/03/22/electronics-ban-lithium-ion-batteries/99502856/


7. LEAVING THE SEATBELT SIGN ON TOO LONG IS DANGEROUS ACCORDING TO AN AIR SAFETY EXPERT


An airline safety expert says plane crews may be unwittingly compromising flight safety by leaving seatbelt signs on too long. Greg Marshall suggests passengers may not see the need to remain buckled up if the signs remain illuminated during a smooth ride or if no one has explained to fliers what's going on.

"The seatbelt sign can tend to stay on for long periods of time. There are occasions when I believe the crews simply forget to turn the sign off," said Marshall of Flight Safety Foundation, an aviation safety advocacy group headquartered in Alexandria, Va. "The intent of putting the seatbelt sign on degrades because passengers get up and walk around the cabin anyway."

Canada's Transportation Safety Board noted in a recent report on 21 turbulence-related injuries on an Air Canada flight from Shanghai to Toronto in December 2015 that passenger compliance with the seatbelt signs may have been affected by the amount of time seatbelt lights had been on.

It said 35 minutes elapsed from the time turbulence preparations started in the cabin to when severe bumpiness began. The cabin lights were low and flight attendants had been moving about, suggesting to passengers that the turbulence was not imminent, the report said.

Canadian aviation regulations require passengers to buckle up during taxis, takeoffs and landings. They must also secure themselves if the seatbelt sign is on or when crew members tell them to do so.

Passengers are also advised, however, to keep their seatbelts fastened whenever they're seated to avoid possible injuries from turbulence.

The industry is aware of the potential for overuse of seatbelt signs.
Transport Canada stated in a 2014 circular that the policies of some airlines to keep passengers in their seats at all times can be counter-productive. It said seat-belt signs should only be lit during critical phases of flight, in cases of turbulence or when the pilot deems it necessary for safety reasons.

"By doing so, passengers and crew members are more likely to understand and realize the importance of the safety belt sign and comply with the instructions when it is illuminated," the circular stated.

The International Air Transport Association advises that seatbelt signs should be used only when necessary "to avoid undermining the importance of the illuminated signs during turbulence or emergency situation."

The TSB report on the Air Canada flight noted that Transport Canada recommends seatbelt announcements be customized with the anticipated severity and duration of turbulence.

"Passengers are more likely to pay attention to and comply with cabin safety information if they perceive it as relevant."

Marshall said policies on seatbelt signs tend to vary greatly from airline to airline. Some carriers leave signs on and don't care much if passengers get up. Others are strict and clashes can occur between flight attendants and fliers used to more relaxed rules.
http://news.nationalpost.com/news/world/expert-suggests-leaving-seatbelt-sign-on-too-long-could-be-bad-for-flight-safety


8. THE SATELLITE SYSTEM THAT COULD AVOID ANOTHER MH370: RADICAL SCHEME TO TRACK AIRCRAFT WHEREVER THEY ARE TO BE FULLY OPERATIONAL IN 2018


# Fleet of 66 satellites carrying airplane-tracking tech could operate by 2018
# The satellites are equipped with receivers, each 'about the size of a mini fridge'
# It could allow flights to take more direct routes, and track in remote locations


A fleet of 66 satellites carrying airplane-tracking technology could soon keep tabs on the position, speed, and altitude of aircraft all around the world. Iridium launched the first ten satellites in January, and so far, two have been switched on and begun to send back data.


It comes three years after the mysterious disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, and experts say the new system could ensure that flights no longer go unaccounted for.




Iridium launched the first ten satellites in January, and so far, two have been switched on and begun to send back data. In just 62 hours, one of these satellites was able to track the positions of 17,000 aircraft

HOW TRAVEL WOULD IMPROVE
The technique could make flying much safer, providing a global picture of airplane activity for air traffic control. And, it could allow flights to take more direct routes, and even allow them to safely fly closer together, as their paths will be plotted more precisely.

With space-based ADS-B, aircraft could fly just 15 nautical miles apart, down significantly from the minimum distance of 80 nautical miles they typically require today. In turn, this would cut down flight time, fuel, and greenhouse gas emissions - it could even cut the amount of fuel burned by 284 million pounds a year, according to PopSci.

In just 62 hours, one of these satellites was able to track the positions of 17,000 aircraft - even those over oceans and remote locations that are impenetrable by radar, according to Popular Science. It's hoped that the entire system will be running by 2018.

'For the first time, we're getting aviation traffic from all over the world, including the oceans,' Daniel Colussey, former CEO of satellite communications company Iridium, said at a conference last weekend, Popular Science reports.

'It's the first time a plane has ever been surveilled over the poles.'

The technique could make flying much safer, providing a global picture of airplane activity for air traffic control. Each satellite is equipped with Aireon's Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) receivers, each of which are 'about the size of a mini refrigerator,' according to PopSci.

While the global network may be a few years away, tests with air traffic managers in Iceland, Canada, Ireland, South Africa, and other locations have so far provided a glimpse at its promise.

A test with Nav Canada revealed the technology could accurately observe the location of a plane flying through a remote area of the country where there's typically no surveillance. While this was only possible when the satellite passed over the plane, about once every 100 minutes, the process will be continuous when all satellites are in orbit, according to PopSci.



A test with Nav Canada revealed the technology could accurately observe the location of a plane flying through a remote area of the country where there's typically no surveillance

Ground stations using ADS-B have been in use for roughly 15 years, and can track a plane's position based on GPS. By putting the receivers on satellites, they won't be limited by the typical line-of-slight problems. 'You don't really have an option for surveillance in the ocean,' said Vinny Capezzuto, CTO of Aireon, according to PopSci. 'Right now, air traffic controllers project where the aircraft should be, based on the flight plan or the pilot report, rather than reality.

'Deviations in the flight plan happen all the time.'

The technology could allow flights to take more direct routes, and even allow them to safely fly closer together, as their paths will be plotted more precisely.

With space-based ADS-B, aircraft could fly just 15 nautical miles apart, down significantly from the minimum distance of 80 nautical miles they typically require today.

The next set of satellites is due to launch in June, with hopes that all 66 will be deployed by the end of 2018

In turn, this would cut down flight time, fuel, and greenhouse gas emissions - it could even cut the amount of fuel burned by 284 million pounds a year, according to PopSci.

The next set of satellites is due to launch in June, with hopes that all 66 will be deployed by the end of 2018. We've seen aircraft in the polar regions, where nobody sees any air traffic,' Capezzuto said, according to PopSci. 'We've seen them in oceanic regions. We can see the tracks from Europe into North America. When we have all 66 satellites up, that'll be the picture we see every time, every second.

'This is going to be the first time air traffic controllers can see the entire world.
https://ui.constantcontact.com/rnavmap/emcf/email/create?copyUid=1127542769490


SOLAR JET STREAM, PROMISES BETTER FLARE FORECASTING
The earth's jet stream has a major influence on weather. Now, it seems like the sun has one, too. Richard A. Lovett reports.


The image on the left is from NASA Solar and Heliospheric Administration (SOHO) image and shows a solar flare erupting from a giant sunspot.


Scientists studying 360-degree images of the sun have discovered that deep in its atmosphere, its magnetic field makes looping meanders intriguingly analogous to the earth's jet stream. Technically known as Rossby waves, these meanders were traced by observing their effect on coronal bright-points - small bright features that dot the sun. Their movements can be used to track motions deeper in the solar atmosphere. They are not particularly fast, especially when measured against the huge scale of the sun itself. "We get speeds of three metres per second," says Scott McIntosh, a solar physicist from the National Centre for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, USA. "Slow, but measurable."


Tracking the movements is difficult from earth, however, because we can only see one side of the sun at a time. That's a problem because it rotates approximately once every 24 days, meaning that each portion of its surface is out of sight for 12.


However, for three years, from 2011 to 2014, solar scientists had a unique opportunity, because there were three deep-space satellites observing the sun all at once, spaced so their divergent angles allowed the entire surface to be seen simultaneously. Two were a pair known as the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), specifically designed for the purpose. The third was NASA's Deep Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which sits directly between the earth and the sun.


Collectively, the trio was able to monitor the whole shebang until 2014, when something went wrong with one of the STEREO spacecraft and it lost contact with its controllers. But three years of data were more than enough for McIntosh's team to track the slow movements of the bright-points and realise what that revealed about the existence of Rossby waves in the underlying magnetic field.


Rossby waves are important, because on earth changes in the jet stream are major factors in influencing local weather patterns. And now that we know similar features exist in the sun's magnetic field, McIntosh says, we may be able to learn how they relate to the formation of sunspots, active regions, and solar flares. If so, it opens the door to forecasting solar storms long before they might hit us.


"This is exciting work," says Daniel Baker, director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who was not part of the study team. "Those of us interested in the 'space weather' effects of solar activity can really applaud."


Predicting space weather is important, because solar storms can hurl dangerous radiation at astronauts, damage satellites, interfere with communications and navigation systems, potentially take out electrical generators and wreak havoc on electronics.


"Estimates put the cost of space weather hazards at $10 billion per year," says Ilia Roussev, program director in the US National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences. Historically there have occasionally been truly giant solar storms that if replicated today would have a devastating effect on modern technological society.


"I always tell people we live in the atmosphere of our star," McIntosh says, referring to the solar wind. "What we have [in terms of technology], it could easily take away any time, in the blink of an eye. But because 99.99% of the time it rises in the morning and sets in the evening without doing any damage, we take it for granted."


What's now needed, he adds, is to restore our ability to view the whole 360-degree surface of the sun, all at once, perhaps by such methods as placing a constellation of spacecraft in orbit around it. "These are things I'd like to see in my lifetime," he says.
https://cosmosmagazine.com/space/solar-jet-stream-promises-better-flare-forecasting


10. NEWS FROM THE JOHANNESBURG AIRPORTS


Users of the Johannesburg aerodromes must be aware of the fact that they all take Aviation Safety and AVSEC seriously. If you want to use these airports as a Pilot or are employed in any way on them, then we would recommend that you make yourself more than familiar with Part 139 in the SACARs and the Rules and Regulations applicable to that particular aerodrome. Be prepared for fines being levied if you breach any of the SARPs.


RAND AIRPORT, GERMISTON - www.randairport.co,za
Next Safety Meeting - Tuesday 2ND May 2017 at 09.00 in the Old Customs Hall
# The wearing of high visibility jackets/waistcoats is mandatory for all persons, excepting for passengers under escort, on airside. (SA CAR 139.02.22(6))
# Drivers found to be speeding on airside will have their access remote taken from them.
# Vehicles being driven on airside must carry proper mandatory insurance cover
# All delivery vehicles and visiting vehicles requiring access to airside MUST be escorted from the access gate to the premises and then after closure of their business back to the gate for egress.
# Cranes are not allowed onto Rand Airport unless their use has been specifically authorised by airport management
# All operators are required to report Bird Strikes to the Safety Office even if there has been no structural damage to the aircraft as a result of the strike.
# Fuel must not be "trucked" into Rand Airport from other sources. Should there be a special requirement permission must be sought from the Airport Manager.


LANSERIA AIRPORT - www.lanseriaairport.co.za
Next Safety, Security and Stakeholders Meeting will be held on Tuesday 9TH May 2017 at 12.00 in the LIA Training School.
# The wearing of high visibility jackets/waistcoats is mandatory for all persons, excepting for passengers under escort, on airside. (SA CAR 139.02.22(6))
# Drivers shall obey the published speed limits which are 30 on airside and 40 on landside - these have been enforced as from 1st May 2015
# Major earthworks to be carried out during the building of a new 3 story car park across the road from the main terminal building. Work should commence on 18th April 2017.


GRAND CENTRAL AIRPORT, MIDRAND
Next Safety Meeting will be held on Tuesday 2ND May 2017 at 12.00 in the Boardroom
#The wearing of high visibility jackets/waistcoats is mandatory for all persons, excepting for passengers under escort, on airside. (SA CAR 139.02.22(6))
# Drivers found to be speeding on airside will have their access revoked
# Should an emergency occur pedestrians are requested to stand still in a safe area out of the way of responding AR&FFS vehicles.
# During any emergency Pilots, Instructors and students should try to keep the frequencies as clear as possible.


11. FINALE

SITUATIONS VACANT. If you are interested and qualified, please send your CV to admin@aviaglobal.net
Part Time Consultant Air Safety Officers required who comply with the requirements of SA CARS Part 135, Part 121, Part 127, Part 140, Part 141 and Part 145 - must have had appropriate SMS training, previous experience and preferably been approved by the South African Air Services Licencing Council.
Part Time Quality Assurance Consultants required who are appropriately qualified and comply with the requirements of Part 135, Part 121, Part 127, Part 140, Part 141 and Part 145.
Part Time Aviation Security Consultant required who is appropriately qualified for RSA and International Operations
Last month we included the Skytrax Awards for the Top 10 Airports in the world. I failed to make reference to ACSA's awards so please see the extract below.


15 March 2017
ACSA AIRPORTS CELEBRATE GLOBAL RECOGNITION FOR QUALITY AND SERVICE


Our airports are once again receiving recognition on the global stage. King Shaka International Airport was last night named as Best Regional Airport in Africa, Best Airport with under five million passengers a year and well as Best Airport Staff Excellence at the Skytrax 2017 World Airport Awards presented in Amsterdam. Cape Town International Airport took top honours in securing the Best Airport in Africa spot.


Cape Town International Airport took 2nd place for Best Airport Staff with O. R. Tambo International Airport scooping fourth place, fifth place went to East London Airport and ninth place to Port Elizabeth Airport. On the World rankings Cape Town International Airport moved from 22 to 19 of the World's Top 100 Airports while King Shaka retained the 35th spot and O. R. Tambo International the 37th Best Airport in the World.


The 2017 World Airports Awards are a measurement of customer satisfaction across airports globally. As the benchmark for the aviation industry, the World Airport Awards are voted by customers in the largest, independent annual global airport customer satisfaction survey. The 2017 Awards were based on 13.82 million airport survey questionnaires that were completed by air travellers of 105 different nationalities during the survey period. The survey covered more than 550 airports worldwide. It evaluated traveller experiences across 39 key performance indicators from check-in, arrivals, transfers, shopping, security and immigration, through to departure at the gate.


Our chief executive officer, Bongani Maseko, congratulated management and staff of local airports named in the awards on their continuing efforts to improve the customer experience. "It is always wonderful to receive this kind of recognition, but all the more so when it is a reflection of a conscious business strategy. We have made listening to the customer a driving force within Airports Company South Africa over the past few years and have been implementing improvements based on what passengers tell us. It is therefore most pleasing that these awards continue to demonstrate our progress in listening, responding and providing an excellent customer
experience," says Maseko.

The Skytrax Awards were announced just a week after three local airports excelled in the annual Airport Service Quality (ASQ) awards determined by independent surveys of some 600 000 passengers around the world. The ASQ awards are made by Airports Council International (ACI), the trade association of the world's airports. ASQ is the only worldwide programme to survey passengers at the airport on their day of travel. Bram Fischer Airport in Bloemfontein was named Most Improved Airport in the Africa region as well as the best airport serving under two million passengers a year. King Shaka International Airport and Cape Town International Airport took second and third places respectively in the ASQ awards for the best airport in the Africa region.


Let us all enjoy this success. Thank you all for your ongoing contribution to making Airports Company South Africa a great company that it is.


Issued by the ACSA Corporate Affairs Division




Global Aviation Data Management (GADM)

- a data management platform aiming at integrating all sources of operational data received from various channels and IATA unique programs such as Flight Operations, Infrastructure, IATA audits, etc. into a common and interlinked database structure. Techniques to improve aviation safety have moved beyond the analyses of isolated accidents to data-driven analyses of trends and the interaction between the links in the air transport chain. This is what the GADM program is all about.

Pulling from all areas of operations sources such as the IATA accident database, the Safety Trend Evaluation Analysis and Data Exchange System (STEADES) database, IOSA and ISAGO audit findings, the Flight Data Exchange (FDX), the Ground Damage Database (GDDB), maintenance-related and other operational databases - GADM is the most comprehensive airline operational database available.

GADM offers a comprehensive cross-database analysis supporting a proactive data-driven approach for advanced trend analysis and predictive risk mitigation. More than 470 organizations around the globe submit their data to the GADM. Over 90% of IATA member carriers are participants to this program. All GADM data contributors have access to applicable aggregated and de-identified reports and analyses.

Join GADM via this link: (https://extranet.iata.org/registration/pages/getemailpage.aspx?siteurl=gadm).
Access to multiple sources of industry data

1. Flight Data Connect (FDC)

# Flight data; extracted directly from the aircraft's Flight Data Recorder (FDR) or optional Quick Access Recorder (QAR) is routinely analysed enabling you to highlight risk areas in your daily operations. IATA's Flight Data Connect (FDC) service is a flight data analysis service for airlines wishing to outsource this function to an external provider.

http://www.iata.org/services/statistics/gadm/Pages/fdc.aspx
To join, please send your request to flightdataconnect@iata.org and copy
dandajenar@iata.org


2. Flight Data Exchange (FDX) - free of charge for IATA member airlines

#FDX is an aggregated de-identified database of FDA/FOQA type events. It allows flight operations and safety departments to proactively identify safety hazards. Raw binary flight data is processed and analysed; and the results are merged and aggregated into a single de-identified database. http://www.iata.org/services/statistics/gadm/Pages/fdx.aspx To join this service please send your request to fdx@iata.org and copy dandajenar@iata.org


2. STEADES - free of charge for IATA member airlines

# A database of de-identified airline incident reports, offering a secure environment for airlines to pool safety information for global benchmarking and analysis needs. http://www.iata.org/services/statistics/gadm/steades/Pages/index.aspx

To join this service please complete the STEADES participation form and email it to
steades@iata.org and copy
dandajenar@iata.org and copy dandajenar@iata.org


3. Ground Damage Database (GDDB) - free of charge for IATA member airlines -

# GDDB is designed to facilitate data-driven decisions to measurably reduce aircraft ground damage. It is a database of ground damage incident reports and its and allows participants to compare their performance to a baseline of global ground damage information. http://www.iata.org/services/statistics/gadm/Pages/GDDB.aspx
Download and send a copy of the signed agreement and the participation form to gddb@iata.org
and copy
dandajenar@iata.org


4. Cabin Safety - free of charge for IATA member airlines

#The concerns of Cabin Safety go beyond the safety demonstration before a flight and encompass a range of different disciplines, topics and processes which are not always evident to airline customers. IATA seeks to offer operational solutions for airlines in order to promote the reduction of incidents or accidents in the cabin, thus resulting in enhanced operational safety and/or significant cost savings for airlines.http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/safety/Pages/cabin-safety.aspx

To join this service send your request to cabin_safety@iata.org and copy dandajenar@iata.org
Get more information from our website: http://www.iata.org/services/statistics/gadm/Pages/index.aspx
Should you require assistance or further information on above please kindly contact:
Ranga DANDAJENA, Manager, Safety & Flight Operations - Africa & Indian Ocean
DandajenaR@iata.org
www.iata.org




Can we help you with your aviation safety
and / or quality assurance requirements?
Under SA CAR 140.01.2 if you and your organisation hold one of the following
# a category 4 or higher aerodrome licence;
# an ATO approval;
# an aircraft maintenance organisation approval;
# a manufacturing organisation approval;
# an ATSU approval;
# a design organisation approval;
#an AOC issued in terms of Part 101, 121, 127, 135, 141;
# a procedure design organisation approval; and
# an electronic services organisation approval,
then you shall establish a Safety Management System for the control and supervision of the services rendered or to be rendered by that organisation.
If you do not already have an approved Air Safety Officer and an approved Safety Management System then please contact us for assistance.
Avia Global in conjunction with Henley Air deliver the following SA CAA Approved training courses at Rand Airport;
# Safety Management Systems
# Integrated Safety Officer Course
# Quality Assurance Auditor
# Crew Resource Management (Initial and Recurrent)
# Dangerous Goods
# Human Factors for AME's
Should your operation be of a size whereby the full time employment of an Air Safety Officer and/or Quality Assurance Officer is not financially viable then we can provide you with Consultants who have previously held Air Services Licensing Council approval. We can also provide you with a tailor made SA CAA approved Safety Management System and all Manuals as required by your Regulatory Authority for your operation.
For further information on how we can help you please contact Rethea or Candice on +27 (0)11 024 5446/7 or e-mail admin@aviaglobal.net

GAC News Letters








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