COVID 19 REGULATIONS, INITIATIVES AND AEROCLUB NEWS
AERO CLUB COMMUNIQUE NOV 2020 # 2 CENTENARY YEARBOOK
The Aero Club as part of its Centenary Celebrations had planned for a Centenary Year Book to be released in 2020, as part of the wider celebration plan. The book has now been completed covering a rich 460-page (with around 1800 illustrations) compendium of Recreational Aviation in SA through the last 100 years, under the expert guidance of John Illsey as the Editor, with inputs from our membership from all our sections.
The books are now available and printed in Novalite (Leather), Hard Cover & Soft Cover versions, from the Aero Club Website Shop, or from the Aero Club office.
Delivery Options are collect at the Rand Airport Aero Club office, or door to door courier service anywhere in SA. Courier costs will range between R 100 to R 150 per book dependent on location. Volume purchases are also available should this be required.
- Novalite (Leather) Bound Book - R 500
- Hard Cover Book - R 400
- Soft Cover Book - R 300
The following events will to take place under the rules controlling the number of people congregating together and are therefore not open to the general public.
Witbank Aeronautical Association Fly-Inn
RSVP 0828 925 954
Springs - SAPFA Speed Rally Season 2
Race 4 finale and gala evening. Come and join us in this fast paced, exciting aviation speed and navigation discipline.
All welcome: - if you think you and your navigator can fly, come and challenge yourself in this event.
It's great fun and you and your navigator will learn a lot about yourselves and your airplane
For more information please call Jonty on 0828559435
5 - 6 DECEMBER
Sports Aerobatics Club of SA Ace of Base
Contact Annie Boone email email@example.com
BLOODHOUND LSR: PRIME-TIME DOCUMENTARY
Dear supporter, wow, 2020 has been quite a rollercoaster ride! We hope you and your family are well during these extraordinary and challenging times. We wanted you to be the first to know that the prime-time documentary detailing Bloodhound's successful 628mph (1010km/h) High Speed Testing campaign is scheduled to air on Channel 4, in the UK, at 6pm on Saturday, 14th November.
Building the World's Fastest Car, the hour-long programme follows the team's fortunes as they deployed to the Kalahari Desert in South Africa for six weeks in autumn 2019.
Filmed on the Hakskeenpan desert, the programme charts the highs and lows as the team attempts to run the car on the desert racetrack, building speeds and learning about the destructive impact of supersonic airflow, ahead of a concerted attempt to break the World Land Speed Record.
The programme has also been distributed to broadcasters around the world. We'll share the dates and channels as we get them.
Those of you with a good memory will recall we mentioned that we had a small batch of limited-edition High-Speed Testing liveried model cars in production. Well, these are now available in our shop and you guys, our core fans, are able to buy them before the rest of the world.
As you may have noticed we've been rather quiet since March. The entire project was put into hibernation to ensure it didn't accrue costs whilst we have been unable to progress both the engineering or fundraising programmes. We will, however, be waking up in the coming weeks, so more news to follow.
Ian and the Bloodhound LSR team.
FIRST NEW DA40 NG DELIVERED TO CARIBBEAN ISLAND
Premier Aircraft Sales recently sold and delivered the first brand new Austro Engine jet-fuel powered Diamond DA40 NG to UFLYVI, based in St Thomas US Virgin Islands. UFLYVI is a growing flight school based in USVI with a diverse fleet. The most recent addition of the Diamond DA40 NG with its state-of-the-art avionics, high safety rating and efficient powerplant will be the most modern aircraft of the fleet.
"We couldn't be more excited to welcome the Diamond DA40 NG to its new home. The aircraft will be placed in our operation in St. Thomas, USVI," says Matthew R Stewart, owner and CFI, CFII, MEI of UFLYVI LLC, "We recently partnered with a new local FBO, Standard Aviation and plan to advertise the most modern and safest flight training aircraft in our area through our combined network. The DA40 NG is sure to attract new students seeking the safety and comfort of this aircraft."
"Diamond Aircraft are proven to operate in diverse climates; the composite airframe is not susceptible to corrosion and is perfectly suited for operation in the hot and humid Caribbean," says Scott McFadzean, CEO of Diamond Aircraft Industries Inc. "We look forward to UFLYVI operating this first new DA40 NG in the US Virgin Islands and to our continued partnership and growth together."
"We are proud to be representing the US Virgin Islands and are sure that the DA40 NG will quickly become popular throughout the Caribbean due to its industry leading safety record, advanced avionics equipment, modern good looks and economical Jet A1 fuel operation." states Jeff Owen, Vice President of Sales at Premier Aircraft Sales, "Premier is supporting the region from its office and service centre facilities at Fort Lauderdale Executive Airport in Fort Lauderdale, Florida."
ADVANCED AERO COMPONENTS ACQUIRES GLASAIR II AND III ASSETS
Glasair Aviation USA, LLC. and Advanced Aero Components "AAC" announced the sale of product line assets for the Glasair II and III models. According to Ian Baker, AAC CEO, the company plans to rejuvenate the product line - new kits will be available in an infused carbon fibre version creating a much lighter, stronger airframe while reducing build times. In addition, existing AAC modifications will be incorporated into the aircraft.
The Glasair II and III will be rebranded as the G2 and G3 sport aircraft under the AAC brand and AAC will provide customer support for existing Glasair II and III builders. Plans also include a web store for available Glasair parts.
Advanced Aero Components CEO Ian Baker announced that the customer support to more than 2,000 existing builders and owners will continue into the future for all existing Glasair II and III aircraft. The continued support will be stronger than ever with the soon to be introduced web store for all available Glasair parts.
The new kits will simply be known as the G2 and G3 series sport aircraft under the Advanced Aero Components brand.
The company is continuing its development of the Firebird 500. Advanced Aero Components is based in Chino, California.
LEGEND CUB EVOLVES TO THE EXTREME WITH MOAC
American Legend Aircraft Company announced today its MOAC, a.k.a. the Mother of all Cubs, a backcountry edition of the Legend Cub. While rooted in the legendary Super Cub, MOAC is a thorough remake and all new construction from the expert hands of American Legend. MOAC incorporates numerous performances enhancing features and is purposely built for the backcountry operations.
Since the wildly successful introduction and debut of the Legend Cub in 2005, successive models have continuously evolved and innovated. At first, the Legend Cub was all about modernity and weight savings. American Legend added strength while lightening the airframe and components. Options to improve pilot situational awareness and comfort followed in the cabin and cockpit. Today's evolutions of the Legend Cub are again numerous. These include envelope expanding modifications with higher horsepower engines and adapting the airframe for access to remote terrain. Now, MOAC is the most exciting way to fly low and slow, while driving performance to the extreme.
Horsepower on the Legend Cub has more than doubled with MOAC and current availability of Titan engines from Continental. Up to 208 horsepower (187-195 continuous) results in remarkable take-off and landing performance on its already strengthened airframe. A Cato fixed pitch, Whirlwind ground adjustable and Hartzell constant speed are among the many propeller options.
Flaps comprise 20- and 40-degree full-span from wing root to aileron. Leading edge slats and aerodynamic square wing tips with optimized wing tip vortices also contribute to MOAC's remarkable performance. MOAC can take off in its own length and behind all that thrust are balanced ailerons, highly effective with a light touch on the control stick. The tail surfaces on MOAC are sized to appropriately balance the aircraft's higher power-weight ratio. "To appreciate these improvements alone, the aircraft must be flown, as simply watching in amazement does not complete the sensation," stated John Wisdom, CFI and Legend demo pilot.
Perhaps the most critical component for backcountry pilots is landing gear performance. If you don't remember the days of taxiing and landing on bungee gear and steel springs, your derrière and jarred teeth certainly do. The pinnacle of modern landing gear comes from TK1 Racing with its Shock Monster front suspension. Shock Monster is a nitrogen charged air/oil shock assembly. Designed for the harshest of bush flying zones, the oil dampened system eats up all the landing aircraft's stored energy on compression. A dual shock setup delivers the security of redundancy, unbelievable cushioning and, best of all, zero bounce back. Shock travel of 4.50 inches equates to about 12-14 inches at the wheel. Combined with the Legend Cub's custom extended cabane vee, the Shock Monster system summons the use of oversized tundra tires and high-performance brakes. MOAC with Shock Monster nearly ensures pinpoint landings with a minimum of rollout.
Longer aircraft legs invariably mean a pilot wants to carry more stuff. MOAC features a turtle deck opening that gives access to extended aft fuselage storage. Cargo doors and a folding rear seat allow storage in the mid-fuselage area for unbelievable carrying capacity. A turtle deck hatch improves accessibility even more, offering two levels of storage and accommodation for longer items, such as a stretcher. The Legend Cub fuselage also allows for L-21 style extended rear windows and a skylight offering near 360-degree viewing.
Extra performance on MOAC also comes from 40-gallons-usable fuel tanks. The extra fuel capacity allows for longer roundtrip flights without a fuel stop, such as into and out of remote areas where fuel is not available. Since its introduction, only the Legend Cub offers doors on both sides of the fuselage for simplified ingress/egress and a full-open cockpit feel.
MOAC can be certified to a gross weight up to 2,000 lbs. As much as 180 lbs of that weight can be placed in the third seat of MOAC as passenger or cargo. Three occupants make MOAC three times as fun.
American Legend Aircraft Company continues to be one of the most successful manufacturers of aircraft for personal and backcountry use. The Legend Cub is sensibly modern, competitively priced, and built-to-last by a company renowned for its exceptional product support. MOAC is the incomparable Cub, a Legend to the extreme.
BLUE ANGELS TO TRANSITION TO SUPER HORNETS
The Navy's Blue Angels will conduct their final flight in the legacy F/A-18 Hornet fighter jet Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, before transitioning to the Super Hornet platform for the 2021 season. This will mark the end of the F/A-18 A/B/C/D platform's 34 years as the Blue Angels' aircraft as the team transitions to F/A-18 E/F Super Hornets.
The move to the Super Hornet will mark the first time the elite Navy and Marine Corps demonstration team has changed aircraft since it moved from the A-4F Skyhawk II to the Hornet back in 1986.
"We are incredibly honoured to have the opportunity to salute those teams who have flown, maintained and supported this platform for over three decades of service," said Cmdr. Brian Kesselring, the Blue Angels' commanding officer and flight leader, in a news release. "We deeply appreciate the expertise and operational knowledge Blue Angels past and present have brought to the team and we look forward to enhancing our operations as we fully transition to flying the Super Hornet."
THE ITALIAN AIR FORCE TAKES DELIVERY OF ITS MOST ADVANCED EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON, WHICH IS CORE TO THE ITALIAN AND EUROPEAN SKY PROTECTION SYSTEM
The Eurofighter Typhoon protects the skies of Italy, Europe, and NATO countries every day and represents an ideal platform for the continuous introduction of new capabilities. Technologies developed for the Eurofighter programme led to a positive spill over effect on a wide range of other industrial applications: from new materials to simulation technologies in a virtual environment.
Taking off from Leonardo's plant in Caselle (Turin), the final and most advanced Eurofighter Typhoon of the Italian Air Force was handed over during a ceremony today becoming one of the defence aircraft assigned daily to the protection of the Italian skies. The ceremony was attended by the Chief of Staff of the Italian Air Force, Gen. Alberto Rosso, the CEO of Leonardo, Alessandro Profumo and the Aircraft Division Managing Director, Marco Zoff.
The Eurofighter was designed as an open architecture, with a well-defined programme of technological updating and improvement that guarantees its competitiveness throughout its life cycle. Constantly evolving technologies, both on board the aircraft and in the context of logistical support, increase its operational effectiveness, survivability and efficient management. The Eurofighter programme is a cornerstone in the development of European aerospace and defence technologies and provides the industries involved with technological leadership that will guarantee competitiveness for many next generation programmes.
Leonardo represents with its activities about 36% of the value of the entire programme, with its key role in the aeronautical components and in the on-board electronics, which sees the company responsible for two primary sensors (radar and IRST) as well as other fundamental avionic technologies.
Leonardo also plays a key role in the evolution of the Eurofighter thanks to the new AESA (Active Electronically Scanned Array) radar, which increases the aircraft's performance and competitiveness, which, in turn, will enhance the targeting of a significant proportion of the international market over the next decade. The Caselle plant is now producing the Kuwait Air Force's Eurofighters, the first ones are to be delivered in this highly advanced configuration.
BOEING ON CONTRACT FOR TWO MORE JAPAN KC-46 TANKERS
The U.S. Air Force has exercised the option for the Japan Air Self-Defence Force's (JASDF) third and fourth Boeing [NYSE: BA] KC-46 tanker through the Foreign Military Sale (FMS) process.
Boeing's KC-46 will be a force multiplier in the U.S.-Japanese defence alliance. It can refuel U.S., allied and coalition military aircraft compatible with international aerial refuelling procedures, any time, on any mission and can carry passengers, cargo and patients whenever and wherever needed.
"This order further enhances our enduring partnership with Japan," said Will Shaffer, president of Boeing Japan. "The KC-46 will be an unparalleled asset to Japan's air mobility fleet for decades to come."
Boeing was awarded the initial FMS contract for Japan's first KC-46 aircraft and logistics services in December 2017 following the Japan Ministry of Defence's KC-X aerial refuelling competition. A contract for a second KC-46 was awarded to Boeing in December 2018.
Boeing assembles KC-46A aircraft for both the U.S. Air Force and the JASDF on its 767-production line in Everett. Japan's first KC-46 is scheduled for delivery in 2021.
Boeing is the world's largest aerospace company and leading provider of commercial airplanes, defence, space and security systems and global services. As a top U.S. exporter, the company supports commercial and government customers in more than 150 countries. Building on a legacy of aerospace leadership, Boeing continues to lead in technology and innovation, deliver for its customers and invest in its people and future growth.
MD HELICOPTERS, INC. (MDHI) ANNOUNCES TWO INDEPENDENT CONTRACT AWARDS FROM ARMY CONTRACTING COMMAND-REDSTONE
MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI) announced two independent contract awards from Army Contracting Command-Redstone to support allied operations of the MD 530F Cayuse Warrior helicopter.
The first contract, worth $6.1 million, requires MDHI to retrofit 18 legacy MD 530F helicopters operated by the Afghanistan Air Force with ballistic-tolerant crashworthy fuel systems (CWFS). Jointly developed with Robertson Fuel Systems, the 59-gallon MD 530F CWFS delivers unmatched safety and survivability. The system features ballistically self-sealing fuel cells, crash-worthy bladders compliant to MIL-DTL-27422, gravity fed auxiliary fuel transfer, compatibility with Robertson's 38-gallon Little Bird Auxiliary Tank System (LBATS), and combat proven performance. Under the contract, MDHI will perform the retrofit of the CWFS for each helicopter in Afghanistan.
The second contract, worth $6.4 million, modifies MDHI's original 2018 indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity production contract to supply six aircraft to the Lebanese Air Force. The modification adds instructor pilot flight training, maintenance and armament training for 12 pilots and 16 maintenance technicians from the Lebanese Air Force. Training will take place at MDHI's Flight Training Academy in Mesa, Arizona, which provides military-specific training to customers operating MDHI helicopters. Under the terms of the contract, the academy will provide night vision goggles (NVG), standard military instruction, instructor pilot, train-the- trainer, gunnery, maintenance, armament and operations in high, heavy, and hot environments training. Performed in two of the Lebanese Air Force's new MD 530F helicopters, training started this month and takes place through April 2021. As a part of the contract, MDHI was awarded increased logistics support to include additional spare parts for the six helicopters to help the Lebanese Air Force maintain an exceptionally high level of operational availability.
"These contracts further emphasize the value the U.S. government puts on supporting our allies with the world's best light attack helicopter-the MD 530F Cayuse Warrior," says Nick Nenadovic, Vice President, Aftermarket and Customer Support. "As the aircraft's OEM, we maintain tremendous pride and passion in ensuring the highest level of support for our customers. We are honoured to provide that support through these two contracts."
HILL HELICOPTERS REVEALS NEW ENGINE DESIGN FOR THE HX50
Hill Helicopters unveiled its Hill GT50 light turbine engine, designed specifically for the new Hill HX50 luxury personal helicopter. A combination of time-tested, proven engine technologies and today's turbine engine advancements, the GT50 is a compact, light, reliable, and innovative solution that defines the future of the light turbine helicopter.
"The GT50 was designed and developed by a team of industry veterans, using methods, tools and techniques pioneered over decades," says Hill Helicopters President and CEO Jason Hill. "It is an intelligent ensemble of proven ideas and architecture, embodied into a new engine that fully exploits modern advancements, manufacturing methods and supply chain opportunities to fulfil a specific market need."
Designing its own advanced engine allowed Hill Helicopters to move outside the constraints of existing engines designed in the 1950s and optimally meet the unique refinement demanded by the HX50 helicopter.
The historically expensive and heavy compressor turbine gearbox of current helicopter engines has been eliminated and replaced by a direct-drive starter-generator to dramatically reduce the cost and mechanical complexity of the engine. Extensive use of redundant electrical engine ancillaries further simplifies the engine package and a modular design makes for easy maintenance of the unit's core components. The engine is also fully electronically controlled and features the Hill FADEC System, providing trouble-free, rapid start-up and shutdown, tight RPM management and optimal engine monitoring and control.
Additionally, the Hill team took advantage of today's economies of scale in manufacturing turbine components. On-demand advanced manufacturing processes and improved supply chains for the specialized materials used in turbine engines allowed for significant cost and time savings in developing, manufacturing and delivering an affordable new engine.
"The availability of reliable, powerful and affordable engines is what limits light helicopter design today," Hill added. "When considering the overall mix of requirements necessary to power a truly ground-breaking aircraft, we saw the opportunity to design a simple turbine engine with unmatched efficiency, power and cost. In simple terms, by developing the advanced GT50 engine, Hill has completely unlocked the potential of the helicopter in terms of both performance and cost, providing the enchanting opportunity to relaunch general aviation."
RUSSIAN HELICOPTERS DELIVERS FIRST BATCH OF HELICOPTER KNOCK-DOWN KITS TO KAZAKHSTAN
Russian Helicopters has delivered the first of 17-helicopter knock-down kits to Kazakhstan. The assembled helicopters will be tasked with transportation of passengers and goods, emergency rescue operations, forest protection, firefighting, ambulance services and law enforcement operations.
The delivery is based on a trilateral contract signed by Kazakhstan Engineering, Kazakhstan's Aircraft Repair Plant No. 405 and Russian Helicopters for semi-knock-down (SKD) assembly of Mi-8AMT / Mi-171E helicopters. The contract, signed in 2019, provides for a total of 17 helicopter kits during 2020-2022.
The main customers for the Mi-8AMT helicopters in Kazakhstan are the National Guard under the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Committee for Emergency Situations. The first batch of Mi-8AMT kits will assembled for the needs of the Committee for Emergency Situations.
Assembly and adaptation of the helicopters to the customer's requirements will be carried out by the Aircraft Repair Plant No. 405 in the city of Almaty. The plant holds the greatest competencies in repairing and maintaining this helicopter type in the Central Asian region. The plant is certified by both Kazakhstan and international authorities for the repair, modernization and maintenance of Mi-8/17/171 helicopters.
The assembled helicopters will be tasked with transportation of passengers and goods, emergency rescue operations, forest protection, firefighting, ambulance services and law enforcement operations.
The operational experience and extensive service network of the Aircraft Repair Plant No. 405 will provide integrated service support for customers in the field of deployment.
Kazakhstan has been a long-term partner of the Russian Helicopters and the country operates dozens of Mi-8AMT / Mi-171 helicopters. The republic became the first foreign operator of the latest Mi-171A2 helicopter.
An Aer Lingus Airbus A320-200, registration EI-DVJ performing flight EI-610 from Dublin (Ireland) to Amsterdam (Netherlands), was climbing out of Dublin's runway 28L when the crew declared PAN PAN reporting multiple bird strikes on rotation for take-off and stopped the climb at 6000 feet. The crew reported increased vibrations on the right-hand engine (CFM56) but the engine was operating normally otherwise. Tower advised via approach that there had been a brief flame from the right-hand engine. The aircraft returned to Dublin's runway 28L for a safe landing about 16 minutes after departure. The occurrence aircraft is still on the ground in Dublin about 22 hours after returning.
South Africa, Nelspruit Airport: A Cirrus SR22 GTS X G3 Turbo with only the pilot on board crashed shortly after a go around at RWY 22 near Nelspruit Airport (NLP/FANS), Mbombela and was destroyed by fire. The pilot did not survive the crash.
South Africa, Wings Park Airfield, East London, Eastern Cape: A Yakovlev Yak-52 with two on board veered off the runway during take-off from Wings Park Airfield, East London. Both occupants escaped unhurt and the aircraft received substantial damage.
Russia, Krasnojarsk: A Ural Airlines Airbus A321-200 on a flight from Krasnojarsk to Ekaterinburg (Russia) with no passengers, 12 crew and a load of cargo, had completed a seemingly uneventful flight with a safe landing on Ekaterinburg when it was found that the slide and hatch at door 3L was missing from the aircraft during a post flight inspection. It was later established that the slide had been recovered from the departure runway in Krasnojarsk. Rosaviatsia, Rostransnador as well as Ural's Transport Prosecutor opened investigations into the occurrence.
Brazil, Igaratinga-São Pedro Airport: An EMB-500 Phenom 100 with four on board crashed in a wooded area while attempting to land at Igaratinga-São Pedro Airport, Brazil. The aircraft burst into flames, but all four occupants were able to evacuate the aircraft.
Russia, Moscow: An Air China Boeing 787-9 on a freight flight from Shanghai Pudong (China) to Frankfurt/Main (Germany), was enroute at FL360 about 220nm northeast of Moscow (Russia) when the crew received a low oil pressure indication and decided to divert to Moscow Sheremetyevo (Russia) for a safe landing on runway 24L about 45 minutes later. USA, East of Chautauqua Co/Jamestown Airport NY: A Grumman American GA-7 Cougar operated by Cougar Air JV LLC with three on board impacted terrain in Chautauqua County while on approach from the east to Chautauqua County/Jamestown Airport. There were no survivors.
Malaysia, Taman Melawati, Selangor: Two Guimbal Cabri G2 operated by the My Heli Club were involved in a mid-air collision in Taman Melawati, Selangor, Malaysia. One 9M-HCB crashed, killing both occupants, while the other made a forced landing in a field.
Argentina, Mendoza: A Baires Fly Swearingen SA-226 Metro III performing a charter flight from San Juan,SJ to Mendoza,MD (Argentina) with 10 people on board, veered right off runway 18 of Mendoza while landing and came to a stop with all gear off the runway, the right main gear having collapsed. There were no injuries.
Guatemala, Guatemala City: A Quest Aircraft Kodiak 100 with only the pilot on board transporting relief supplies, crashed in zone 9 of Guatemala City and was destroyed by fire. The pilot didn't survive the crash.
St. Petersburg, Russia: A Rossiya Airbus A319-100 performing a flight from Krasnodar to St. Petersburg (Russia) with 123 passengers and 5 crew, had completed a seemingly uneventful flight with a safe landing on St. Petersburg's runway 28L. However, on Nov 5th 2020 Rosaviatsia reported a post flight inspection revealed an earthing cable of 5-6m length entangled in the left main gear's hydraulic lines and brakes, in addition there was damage to the radio altimeter #2 antenna and numerous abrasions on the belly skin of the fuselage. A runway inspection of Pulkovo's runway 28L as well as the taxi route of the aircraft did not reveal any damage and no foreign objects there. The aircraft was withdrawn from service for further inspection and assessment.
8 NOVEMBER 1942
Pilots equipped with anti-G suits carried out combat operations for the first time in history. They were members of 807 Squadron Fleet Air Arm, wearing the Canadian designed Franks suit. They flew Supermarine Seafires over Oran, Algeria.
A g-suit, or anti-g suit, is a flight suit worn by aviators and astronauts who are subject to high levels of acceleration force (g). It is designed to prevent a black-out and g-LOC (g-induced loss of consciousness) caused by the blood pooling in the lower part of the body when under acceleration, thus depriving the brain of blood leading to temporary hypoxia. Hypoxia first causes a greyout (a dimming of the vision), also called brownout, followed by tunnel vision and ultimately complete loss of vision 'blackout' followed by g-induced Loss of Consciousness or 'g-LOC'. A g-suit does not so much increase the g-threshold, but makes it possible to sustain high g longer without excessive physical fatigue.
In 1931 a professor of physiology, Frank Cotton, from the University of Sydney, described a new way of determining the centre of gravity of the human body. This made it possible to describe the displacement of mass within the body under acceleration. Cotton had recognised the need for an anti-gravity suit during the 1940 Battle of Britain. It was estimated that 30% of pilot deaths were due to accidents, including black-out. Spitfires, in particular, were capable of rapid turns that generated high g-forces, causing black-out when diving to avoid or deliver enemy fire.
Professor Frank Cotton of Sydney University, Australia, designed the world's first successful gas-operated anti-G suit. Research commenced late in 1940 and a suit was designed with rubber sacs covered externally by inextensible material. The sacs automatically inflated when G forces increased during flying. The suit was developed at the Sydney Medical School.