COVID 19 REGULATIONS, INITIATIVES AND AEROCLUB NEWS
AERO CLUB COMMUNIQUE SEPTEMBER 2021 #1
Some time has passed since our last Communique in July, at least the C19 third wave has abated and the lockdown has eased somewhat, although Aviation related protocols remain very much unchanged. Aviation events are at least picking up, many informal fly-aways have taken place or are scheduled in the coming weeks, the attendance enthusiasm very evident as Aviators attend in their droves, as Spring & Summer weather comes around.
Sadly much of the International event activity is still muted, the World Rally Flying Championships to take place in Stellenbosch in November has had to be cancelled with SA remaining red-listed for returning travellers and the risk of the 4th wave, it is estimated that normality of some sort would return by mid 2022.
On the advocacy front, the ATF renewal process with the CAA is improving keeping within the stipulated turnaround times, electronic copies of the ATF are now being provided which has eased up the difficult logistics of getting physical copies. In the background the Aero Club is working on a web based electronic ATF renewal upload system, which is planned to be rolled out in the coming weeks, this should ease up the documentation overload on our members.
There is active participation in the Part 66 Subpart 4 regulation rework which covers the Approved Persons Certificate, weekly workshops are now in progress. the Aero Club website also has had extensive information provided related to APs, and contains relevant information on the process of how to become an AP, application forms and study material. We will also be starting an AP contact list - which will be popi act compliant with the necessary consents.
Our office at Rand Airport is open daily, Sandra & Charne on hand to assist with any Aero Club related topics, our Council meetings are held virtually on zoom which is working very well with the Council Members scattered around the country. Our office & membership administrator Sandra Strydom has been with the Aero Club for 10 years, a celebratory breakfast was held with the Aero Club Exco to recognise this significant milestone.
If you are not a member and wish to join the Aero Club and any of its Sections feel free to do so member-renewals-and-new-memberships
EAA Chapter 322 virtual monthly meeting via Zoom. Contact Neil 084 674 5674 or E-mail: email@example.com
Children's Flight at Orient airfield.
5 TO 7 NOVEMBER
EAA Sun 'n Fun at Brits airfield. Contact Neil Bowden 084 674 5674 or E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
SAPFA SA Landing Championships at Brits Airfield. For more information contact Ron Stirk E-mail: email@example.com Cell: 082 445 0373
SAPFA Springs Speed Rally at Springs Airfield. Contact Jonty Esser E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Cell: 082 855 9435
Sports Aerobatics Club Western Cape regionals at Stellenbosch airfield. Contact Annie Boon E-mail: email@example.com
EAA Chapter 322 virtual monthly meeting via Zoom. Contact Neil Bowden 084 674 5674 or E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Aero Club of South Africa annual awards venue TBA. For more information contact Rob Jonkers E-mail: email@example.com Cell: 082 804 7032
4 & 5 DECEMBER
Sports Aerobatics Club ACE of Base Baragwaneth Airfield. Contact Annie Boon E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
CHAPTER 322 PILOT BURSARY PROGRAM AWARDED
On 17 September, we met with Shanley, his proud parents, Alan Stewart from Johannesburg Flying Academy (where Shanley is training), Mark Clulow and Marie Reddy from EAA 322
In July of this year, Mark Clulow, EAA 322 Honorary Treasurer proposed that Chapter 322 sponsor a pilot bursary to assist a suitable candidate reach their dream. The program was intended as a once off bursary and to see what the uptake would be. The bursary program was confirmed at the EAA 322 August monthly meeting and was launched 2 days later via email to members as well as social media platforms.
The first response with all required documentation was received within24 hours of launching the program. Applications were open for the month and closed on 31 August 2021. With seven candidates in total, the verification process began.
To ensure that the process was fair for all applicants and flying schools, only the administrator was exposed to the applicant documentation and details. All applicant details were kept confidential - even from the panel that was to decide on the successful applicant. The panel were issued with a schedule including the Applicant allocated number, their age, confirmation that the required criteria were met, and their letters of motivation.
Mark Clulow headed a panel of long time EAA Members, which met on 14 September to review all applicants. Two applicants were disqualified as they did not meet the requirements, there were five excellent candidates to choose from.
After much discussion and review of the motivation letters, all panel members agreed that Applicant #5 was the most suitable candidate for the pilot bursary. Only once all agreed that #5 was the successful applicant was the identity of the applicant and the flying school revealed.
Letters were sent to all applicants who were awarded EAA 322 membership cards on 15 September. Arrangements were made to meet at Panorama Airfield for a short introduction and congratulations ceremony at the student's flying school.
Shanley Coetzee was the youngest candidate and is undertaking his PPL with Shami Orri as his instructor at Johannesburg Flying Academy, owned by Alan Stewart. Congratulations to 18-year-old Shanley Coetzee on being awarded the first EAA 322 pilot bursary. Shanley also got his learners licence the same week and his mother shared that he regards it as his “lucky week”.
Thanks to EAA 322 committee and members for allowing this bursary to be undertaken. Special thanks to the Bursary program team.
Visiting Panorama Airfield on 15 September (which was planned before the panel's decision), I landed to see one student washing aircraft at the flight school. I recognised him from the documents that were submitted with the bursary applications as #5. It just made me feel that the right decision had been made.
NIGERIA'S PRESIDENTIAL AIR FLEET RECEIVES FIRST OF TWO AW189 HELICOPTERS
Written by Justin Cronje
The arrival of the AW189 follows the induction into service of the first six of 12 A-29 Super Tucanos into the Nigerian Air Force on 31 August. Other aircraft, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) from China, are due to arrive in Nigeria soon.
The AW189 is painted in the colours of the Nigerian Air Force's Presidential Air Fleet. The second AW189, expected to be delivered soon, was also seen painted in the colours of Nigeria's Presidential Air Fleet during flight testing in Italy.
The Presidential Air Fleet is based at Abuja/Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria) and operates two Leonardo AW139 helicopters next to a fleet of fixed wing aircraft, which includes a Cessna 550, a Falcon 900, a Boeing 737-700, two Falcon 7X jets and a Gulfstream G550.
To ensure there are enough pilots to fly the new acquisitions, the Nigerian Air Force is training personnel locally as well as in foreign countries and last week graduated 20 UAV and five fixed/rotary wing pilots.
GROB G120TP TRAINERS FOR KENYA
Written by defenceWeb
The Kenya Air Force is operating Grob G120TP turboprop trainers, following its earlier acquisition of G120A-K piston engined trainers.
Air Forces Monthly reported that the latest batch of three G120TP aircraft were delivered recently. After leaving the Grob factory in Germany, they flew through Crete, Egypt, Djibouti and Ethiopia to arrive in Kenya on 19 August. Two were previously seen in service with the Kenya Air Force's Training Squadron at Laikipia Air Base in May this year.
According to Grob, the Kenya Air Force is now operating nine new G120TPs in addition to its earlier acquisition.
The Kenya Air Force in November and December 2013 received six of the G120A-K piston engine models, becoming the first African air force to operate the type. Pilot training took place in Mattsies, Germany. One subsequently crashed on 28 March 2018, but the pilots survived.
Kenya's G120A-Ks were acquired to replace its fleet of ten Scottish Aviation Bulldogs. The G120A-K is powered by a six-cylinder Lycoming piston engine providing 260 hp. The largely all-composite airframe has a service life of 15 000 hours and is certified for +6/-4 gs, allowing for aerobatic training. The modern glass cockpit features three Elbit 205 x 150 mm multi-function displays, a digital standby flight display and a digital engine display. Grob says the G120 has one of the lowest maintenance costs in the industry.
The G120TP is powered by the Rolls-Royce M250-B17F turbine engine, which can be limited to 312 shp for ab initio training, although it is rated at 380 shp for maximum cruise (380 km/h). The student pilot can be seated either in the left hand or right-hand ejection seat, both with individual throttle levers.
The Ethiopian Air Force became the second in Africa to operate the G120, acquiring 12 turboprop models from 2019.
The G120 is flown by the Canadian, German, French and Israeli air forces while the turboprop G120TP, which first flew in 2010, has been adopted by the air forces of Argentina, Ecuador, Indonesia, Mexico, Myanmar and Jordan.
On 13 September 2021, the Maritime Air Squadron (MAS) of the Mauritius Coast Guard officially inducted a former Indian Navy Do228-201 in service.
The aircraft, former Indian Navy Do228-201, is leased to the Mauritius Police Force (MPF) on a gratis basis for most probably one year. The aircraft will be used by the Coast Guard.
The High Commissioner of India to Mauritius, Smt Nandini K Singla, emphasised on the friendly ties and naval cooperation existing between Mauritius and India. She highlighted that the HAL Do228 has been leased to the MPF by the Indian Navy to support the current increased load of air operations. She also mentioned that in 2022, HAL shall be handing over a brand-new passenger variant Dornier Do228 to Mauritius and this purchase has been facilitated by the Line of Credit under the Government of Mauritius.
U.S. NAVY, BOEING CONDUCT FIRST MQ-25 REFUELING MISSION WITH F-35C
The U.S. Navy and Boeing [NYSE: BA] have used the MQ-25TM T1 test asset to refuel a U.S. Navy F-35C Lightning II fighter jet for the first time, once again demonstrating the aircraft's ability to achieve its primary aerial refuelling mission.
This was the third refuelling mission for the Boeing-owned test asset in just over three months, advancing the test program for the Navy's first operational carrier-based unmanned aircraft. T1 refuelled an F/A-18 Super Hornet in June and an E-2D Hawkeye in August.
"Every test flight with another Type/Model/Series aircraft gets us one step closer to rapidly delivering a fully mission-capable MQ-25 to the fleet," said Capt. Chad Reed, the Navy's Unmanned Carrier Aviation program manager. "Stingray's unmatched refuelling capability is going to increase the Navy's power projection and provide operational flexibility to the Carrier Strike Group commanders."
During a test flight Sept. 13, an F-35C test pilot from the Navy's Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Two Three (VX-23) conducted a successful wake survey behind T1 to ensure performance and stability before making contact with T1's aerial refuelling drogue and receiving fuel.
"This flight was yet another physical demonstration of the maturity and stability of the MQ-25 aircraft design," said Dave Bujold, Boeing's MQ-25 program director. "Thanks to this latest mission in our accelerated test program, we are confident the MQ-25 aircraft we are building right now will meet the Navy's primary requirement - delivering fuel safely to the carrier air wing."
The T1 flight test program began in September 2019 with the aircraft's first flight. In the following two years, the test program completed more than 120 flight hours - gathering data on everything from aircraft performance to propulsion dynamics to structural loads and flutter testing for strength and stability.
MQ-25 is benefitting from the two years of early flight test data, which has been integrated back into its digital models to strengthen the digital thread connecting aircraft design to production to test to operations and sustainment. Boeing is currently manufacturing the first two MQ-25 test aircraft.
T1 will be used to conduct a deck handling demonstration aboard a U.S. Navy carrier in the coming months to help advance the carrier integration progress
GULFSTREAM G700 SETS FIRST INTERNATIONAL CITY-PAIR SPEED RECORDS
An all-new Gulfstream G700, the largest aircraft in Gulfstream's fleet, set its first ever city-pair speed records from Savannah to Doha, Qatar and then from Doha to Paris.
The fully outfitted G700 production test aircraft connected Savannah to Doha, a distance of 6,711 nautical miles/12,428 kilometres, at an average speed of Mach 0.88 in 13 hours and 16 minutes. The aircraft then set another city-pair record from Doha to Paris, flying 2,953 nm/5,469 km in 6 hours and 15 minutes at an average speed of Mach 0.90.
The record-breaking flights also showcased Gulfstream's commitment to reducing carbon emissions. For the Savannah to Doha flight, Gulfstream fuelled the G700 with a blend of sustainable aviation fuel. Carbon offsets are being applied for both flights.
"These were the first international flights for the G700 and it performed exceptionally well, setting two new records in the process," said Mark Burns, president, Gulfstream. "We are excited to introduce the G700 in person to customers in the Middle East and Europe and are proud that we can do so while also demonstrating our commitment to sustainability at the same time. Not only did the aircraft prove its speed and distance capabilities, the fully outfitted cabin is also receiving rave reviews with its impressive cabin size, environment, quality and flexibility."
The G700 cabin, the most spacious in the industry, can be configured for up to five living areas with options for an ultragalley with 10 feet of counter space; a dedicated crew space; an entertainment and presentation area; six-place conference and dining area and a grand suite with shower. Interior elements include the G700's award-winning seat design and all-new ultra-high-definition circadian lighting system complemented by the Gulfstream Cabin Experience of 100% fresh, never recirculated air, the industry's lowest cabin altitude, whisper-quiet noise levels and 20 panoramic oval windows.
Gulfstream's sustainability goals encompass three pillars - energy and emissions, operations and culture and learning - and are in line with industry goals established by the National Business Aviation Association, the General Aviation Manufacturers Association and the International Business Aviation Council to reduce carbon emissions, improve fuel efficiency and pursue carbon-neutral growth.
BUILDING THE FOUNDATION FOR A CLEANER FUTURE: WRIGHT HAS BEGUN TESTING A 2MW AVIATION-GRADE MOTOR
Wright Electric, Inc., a world leader in zero-emissions commercial aviation has announced that the company has delivered another key building block towards development and certification of the first commercially viable, zero-emissions single-aisle aircraft.
Scaling electric and hybrid-electric propulsion systems from general aviation to larger aircraft applications requires much more powerful and lighter weight altitude-capable electric motor technology.
Their purpose is to convert the DC power from batteries into propulsive thrust that is compatible with industry standard ducted fan and propeller systems for commercial aircraft. "The level of power and weight demonstrated with our new 2 MW motor will become the baseline for any new electric aircraft and is a key technology in our megawatt system," said Jeff Engler, CEO of Wright.
The motor is being designed to be scalable from 500 kw to 4 MW systems and the Wright motor targets the following levels of performance: ? 2 MW of propulsive power - a 2x improvement over megawatt scale motors being demonstrated in the industry and designed to be scalable from 500 kW to 4 MW for different applications. ? 10 kW/kg specific power - a 2x improvement compared to available aircraft propulsion motors. This allows application of the motor up to the single-aisle class aircraft to enable electric and hybrid-electric flight with little to no emissions. ? Wright will use 10 2MW motors on its Wright 1 aircraft - that's a total of 20 MW, which is as powerful as an A320 Airbus aircraft that major airlines operate today. A two-motor system could power a 50-seat aircraft such as the ATR-42.
"In January 2020, we announced the start of our megawatt scale electric motor program for a single-aisle commercial airliner. In May 2021 we announced the testing of our next-generation inverter technology. Building on that momentum, Wright is excited to begin testing of our 2 MW electric powertrain and preparing for flight qualification in the near future," Engler said. "Zero-emissions commercial aircraft are the future and Wright is focused on delivering on the promise."
The motor now proceeds to the next phase of development including integration with an in-house developed highly efficient inverter, high altitude chamber testing and qualification for flight readiness.
Wright Electric is excited to demonstrate our first system and is committed to continuing to push the development of the motor and inverter to meet the requirements of the aerospace community with progressive development over the next two years. Wright has been funded by NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the US. Army and the U.S. Air Force in its motor development efforts.
THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN ORDERS TWO AIRBUS A400MS
The Republic of Kazakhstan has placed an order for two Airbus A400M aircraft and becomes the ninth operator together with Germany, France, United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, Belgium, Malaysia and Luxembourg.
With delivery of the first aircraft scheduled in 2024, the contract includes a complete suite of maintenance and training support. Together with the agreement a Memorandum of Understanding has also been signed to collaborate on Maintenance and Overhaul services and with a first step of creating a local C295 maintenance centre.
"The A400M will become the cornerstone of Kazakhstan's tactical and strategic airlifting operations," said Michael Schoellhorn, CEO of Airbus Defence and Space. "This new export contract brings the total number of A400M orders to 176 aircraft, a figure that we expect to increase in the near future. With more than 100 aircraft delivered and 100,000 flight hours in operation, the A400M has proven its capabilities, reaching a state of maturity that many potential customers were waiting for."
With the capacity to accommodate the country's inventory and conduct military, civil and humanitarian missions, the A400M will enable Kazakhstan to quickly respond to any mission by rapidly deploying game-changing capabilities over long distances and enabling effective access to remote areas.
SAFRAN'S FIRST HELICOPTER ENGINE RUNS USING 100% SUSTAINABLE FUEL
Safran Helicopter Engines has completed a first at its Bordes site (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France): the end of a helicopter engine test campaign using 100 percent sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). During this campaign, a Makila 2 ran on a biofuel produced by TotalEnergies from residues and waste from the circular economy, specifically used cooking oil.
This test campaign has evaluated the operational impact of using only SAF on a helicopter engine. To do this, the engine manufacturer utilized a Safran Tech special facility known as "Bearcat" (Banc d'Essai Avancé pour la Recherche en Combustion et Aérothermique des Turbomachines), an advanced test bench for turbomachinery combustion and aerothermal.
Franck Saudo, CEO of Safran Helicopter Engines says, "after the first flight of a rescue helicopter using 40% SAF in June and the fuel's gradual introduction for engine tests at our sites since July, we are now taking a new step toward using fuel made entirely from renewable sources. This test campaign is a key step in the realization of future test flights with our helicopter partners. The use of sustainable fuels among helicopter operators and at our sites, is a promising lever to significantly reduce CO2 emissions over the entire life cycle of our products".
"By offering our customers like Safran sustainable aviation biofuels produced in France, we are meeting a strong demand from the aviation industry to reduce its carbon footprint. The development of biofuels is one of the main thrusts of TotalEnergies' multi-energy strategy to meet the challenge of decarbonizing the transportation sector. This is fully in line with the Company's climate change ambition of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050," said Virginie Merini, Senior Vice President, Renewable Fuels at TotalEnergies.
Safran engines are already certified to operate with up to 50% SAF. With 100% incorporation, the lower carbon footprint of these fuels will reduce CO2 emissions by up to 80%.
ARCHER BEGINS TRADING ON THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE UNDER THE SYMBOL "ACHR"
Archer Aviation Inc. ("Archer'') (NYSE: ACHR), a leading developer of all-electric vertical take-off and landing ("eVTOL") aircraft, announced that its Class A common stock and warrants will begin trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbols "ACHR" and "ACHR WS", respectively.
"Completing our go-public transaction and having Archer trade on the New York Stock Exchange is a huge milestone for our business. This is the culmination of a lot of hard work by the great team we have at Archer, but it is also the beginning of the next phase of our development and growth," said Brett Adcock, co-founder and co-CEO of Archer.
"We are working to build an urban air mobility network that can change the way people travel in and around cities forever. We believe we have the team, the technology and the strategic partners to make our vision a reality," said Adam Goldstein, co-founder and co-CEO of Archer.
The Business Combination generated approximately $857.6 million of gross proceeds, including $600 million of proceeds from the PIPE which will help fund Archer's vision of bringing an electric vertical take-off and landing vehicle (eVTOL) to market and launching an urban air mobility network.
The PIPE included participation from leading strategic and long-term financial investors including United Airlines, Stellantis and the venture arm of Exor, Baron Capital Group, the Federated Hermes Kaufmann Funds, Mubadala Capital, Putnam Investments and Access Industries. Additionally, Ken Moelis and affiliates, along with early investor Marc Lore and founders Brett Adcock and Adam Goldstein, invested $30 million in the PIPE.
On 16 August 2018, a Condor Flugdienst Airbus A320-212, was performing a visual departure from runway 23L at Kavala Airport, Greece, in the direction of XERIS. The crew received a TCAS (TA, RA) during initial climb and had to manoeuvre to avoid a possible collision with a helicopter (Hughes 369HS, SX-HDW) passing through the CTR of Kavala Airport and then performed a manoeuvre to avoid mountains. The aircraft then resumed its flight and landed at its final destination.
The closest distance between both aircraft was 208 ft (63 m) vertically and 0.09 NM (167 m) horizontally.
First Root Cause; Before Departure of D-AICD:
ATC Failure, when allowing VFR departure, to inform the D-AICD Flight Crew of the Helicopter flying West and close of Kavala Airport at 2,500ft.
Second Root Cause; At TCAS ??/RA:
Failure, of D-AICD PF, to apply SOP's for TCAS TA warning ''TRAFFIC-TRAFFIC'', to maintaining V/S and subsequently at the first TCAS RA command of "MAINTAIN V/S".
Third Ro?t Cause; During TCAS escalation:
The PM's intervention on the Side Stick, without following the SOP process of gaining control of the aircraft and such, the escalation of that serious incident.
- Non-use of standard English language between Kavala ATC and the Helicopter.
- ATC of Kavala not informing D-AICD Flight Crew of the current position, altitude and course of traffic inside Kavala CTR.
- The Helicopter, most probably, flying at a wrong QNH as not being informed of the actual QNH by Kavala ATC.
- The use of ARC instead of ROSE mode on ND by PF & PM, disabled the early detection of the intruder.
Libya, 130 km southeast of Benghazi: Two Libyan National Army helicopters collided mid-air and crashed. Two crew members of one helicopter died in the crash. All other crew members survived.
Canada, Lake Scugog, near Port Perry, ON: An Atlin Flyers Ltd amateur built float equipped Murphy Rebel was being flown for the purpose of type training following the purchase of the aircraft, with the owner/pilot and an instructor on board. Numerous water landings had been made when coming in for a landing adjacent to Port Perry harbour and immediately following touchdown, geese were observed ahead of the aircraft; the pilot attempted to avoid them with a turn to the right. However, the left float dug into the water and the aircraft overturned. Both occupants exited the aircraft without difficulty and were picked up by nearby boaters shortly after the occurrence. There were no injuries.
Brazil, Campo Grande, Mato grosso do Sul: A Força Aérea Brasileira Embraer A-29A Super Tucano pilot during a training flight ejected safely after detecting a technical failure in the A-29 Super Tucano fighter aircraft. The aircraft was directed to an uninhabited region, where it was destroyed when it collided with the ground.
USA, NW of Newfane, Niagara County, NY: Following a loss of engine power, a Waco GXE sustained unreported damage subsequent to the ensuing forced landing and nose over in a cornfield terrain northwest of Newfane, Niagara County, New York. The sole pilot onboard the biplane received minor injuries.
Spain, Sierra Bermeja, Malaga: A Babcock MCS Spain Eurocopter AS 332L2 Super Puma firefighting helicopter with 19 occupants as a result of low visibility (brown out) contacted a tree during take-off. The 19 occupants were not injured. After the accident and during this night, the fire where the helicopter was working, reach it and have been burnt with no possibility to repair.
USA, Whiteman Air Force Base, MI: A United States Air Force Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit bomber sustained substantial damage during an emergency landing at Whiteman Air Force Base after a training flight. According to some sources, the aircraft sustained a hydraulic failure in flight and had its port main landing gear collapse during landing. It then went off the runway when its wing dug into the ground causing substantial damage to the airframe.
USA, Massey Ranch Airpark (X50), Edgewater, FL: An experimental kit-built Zenith CH 750 Cruzer with two occupants suffered substantial damage when it slid of the runway at Massey Ranch Airpark (X50), Edgewater, Florida and came to rest upside down in a ditch. Both occupants escaped uninjured.
USA, Wadsworth Municipal Airport, Wadsworth, OH: An experimental kit-built Rans S-20 Raven with one on board impacted the runway during a take-off attempt at Wadsworth Municipal Airport (3G3), Wadsworth, Ohio. The sole pilot onboard was fatally injured and the airplane was destroyed by the ensuing post-crash fire.
USA, Lake Worth, TX: An US Navy Boeing T-45C Goshawk with two crew operated by Training Air Wing was destroyed subsequent to an impact with multiple residential structures in Lake Worth, about one mile north of Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (JRB/FWH) Fort Worth (NFW/KNFW), Texas. The two pilots ejected, one was critically injured and one was seriously injured.
23 SEPTEMBER 1913
Roland Garros makes the first air crossing of the Mediterranean Sea. He flies the 729 km (453 miles) from Saint-Raphaël to Bizerte in 7 hours 53 min.
Eugène Adrien Roland Georges Garros, born on 6 October 1888, was a French pioneering aviator and fighter pilot during World War I and early days of aviation.
In 1928, the Roland Garros tennis stadium was named in his memory; the French Open tennis tournament takes the name of Roland Garros from the stadium in which it is held.
He started his aviation career in 1909 flying a Demoiselle (dragonfly) monoplane, an aircraft that flew well only if it had a small lightweight pilot. He gained Ae.C.F. licence no. 147 in July 1910. In 1911, Garros graduated to flying Blériot XI monoplanes and entered a number of European air races with this type of aircraft, including the 1911 Paris to Madrid air race and the Circuit of Europe (Paris-London-Paris), in which he came second.
On 4 September 1911, he set an altitude record of 3,950 m (12,960 ft). The following year, on 6 September 1912, after Austrian aviator Philipp von Blaschke had flown to 4,360 m (14,300 ft), he regained the height record by flying to 5,610 m (18,410 ft).
By 1913 he was flying the faster Morane-Saulnier monoplanes and on 23 September, gained fame for making the first non-stop flight across the Mediterranean Sea from Fréjus-Saint Raphaël in the south of France to Bizerte in Tunisia in a Morane-Saulnier G. The flight commenced at 5:47 am and lasted for nearly eight hours, during which time Garros resolved two engine malfunctions.
The following year, Garros joined the French army at the outbreak of World War I. On 5 October 1918, he was shot down and killed near Vouziers, Ardennes, a month before the end of the war and one day before his 30th birthday.